The Curtiss Pusher Model D Biplane

Initial inspection of the aircraft-Curtiss Model D at Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome reveals a biplane departs innovative models of other tracts of the collection, the Bleriot XI, and Hanriot individual sports wings and therefore is considered as “monoplanes”. However, the unique model of D does not stop there.

In fact, there is neither open nor closed a fuselage, but nearly a box kite resembles Assembly bamboo beams and booms, a horizontal surface deviation which extends forward of the pilot recalls a hoax, a seat with a shoulder height, half circle brace that appears more like something that would sit on a rear-facing propeller mounted behind him, he looks as if it could not be determined definitively what was ahead, “” small surfaces, horizontal, situated halfway and back, the two wings, leaving temporarily to wonder if it was a triplane, a tail skid which outweighs the plane early, replaced by a nose wheel and causing a three-wheel configuration and a small hook, and then alluded to the arrest based company in naval aviation. These features tracts of land transport technology, in which they are derived, are geometrically arranged design solutions for aerodynamic flight, and are innovations and expressions of the man who conceptualized the whole, Glenn Hammond Curtiss.

Born May 21, 1878 in Hammondsport, New York, Curtis, whose second name was given in honor of the founding father of the city, had, like a schoolboy, has always been interested in mathematics and mechanics and had forged a lifestyle that was roughly parallel to the Wright brothers in progress. This path eventually leading to a cracked mirror of nine years of litigation between the two.

Although his formal education ended after the eighth year, however, had a penchant and passion for technical issues and, encouraged by this inspiration, had been entirely self-taught. Opening, like the Wright brothers, a local bike shop for the wine sector, the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York, had first repaired before selling their design, establish, without his knowledge in In this time, a basis on which their interests and abilities ultimately the rise as high as the sky, using motorized bikes designed intermittently, or “motorcycle engines”, lightweight, and aircraft engines conduct.

A national cycling champion at 20, and the first person to be issued a pilot’s license in the United States, he was a founding member of the agreement of experimental air (SAA) with the likes of Alexander Graham Bell, and won the Scientific American trophy, beating the first aircraft, a biplane wings of the bow in June Bug in July over a kilometer 4, 1908. Although the event was a triumph Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, for four and a half years had been the first to be publicly demonstrated and verified.

But he had only been the first of many flights and acts of registration, none of them, like the Wright brothers, the competition had been held incommunicado. In fact, with the passage of Reims, a development of the June Bug, Curtiss was able to earn the price of 52.63 mph flying speed in the Grande Champagne region of Aviation Week at Rheims, France, in competition with names like Latham, Farman, Bleriot, and Count de Lambert, and even beat Bleriot in his native country for six seconds and get the Gordon Bennett Trophy

United States, Curtiss had won $ 10 000 later, the Hudson-Fulton, awarded by driving its brochure of Albany in Albany to Manhattan, and NC-4 design for the Navy, made the first transatlantic crossing to the Azores in 1919, some eight years before Charles Lindbergh flew the route north of Paris. Acquisition and restoration of the unfortunate Samuel Pierpont Langley’s Aerodrome was not even allowed to fly successfully the design, so that the validation of their merits.

Curtiss, the company nationally famous Curtiss plane, the largest in the First World War, with two floors and over 100 employees, had managed to make many innovations, critical design and creation of aeronautics during the 20th century, and had, according to Augustus Post, Secretary of the Aero Club before, “made its way from the manufacture of bicycles in the construction of history.”

The Curtiss Model D built this whole experience. More closely based on the broker, 1909 Reims, who had built several experimental design features air of the Association, which had deviated significantly from the other device at the same time. The corridor of Reims itself, having evolved into the largest design that flew from Albany to New York and the D-end model consisted of two identical, overlapping, directly on the aerodynamic surfaces built deformed rubber Silk Baldwin nailed the set ribs and attached to the frame, and mounted five feet, the formation of its biplane configuration.

Before power provided by four-cylinder, air cooled, 25 hp, vertical motors, which in turn was a little more than adaptations of the types of cars, was replaced later by more than V-arrangement capable of doubling the number of cylinders to eight and the power output 50. Because of its continuous state to full power, the rear cylinders, mounted in the longitudinal configuration, is more prone to overheating, which requires a modification of the method of cooling the air before the water present. Despite the eight-cylinder V necessarily punishable by weight for the previous generation of power plants, which provided continuous intervals considerable power, which makes Curtiss biplane is the fastest time.

The characteristic of these earlier designs were two, 12 square meters, the wings connected together in an attempt to depart from the Wright-wing strain patented method eliminated during the flight, had provided the control section, while only two of 24 square meters, lifts, forming a second biplane, smaller and mounted on the end of two bamboo outriggers, which pivots at its meeting in front of the driver available in a duck, a raise, or tone and lowering the height or decreasing, by means of a pushing or pulling of the corresponding control column.

The tail was formed by a 15-meter square, semi-rigid surface, horizontal, providing stabilization keel, and a square of 6.6 meters, the central surface, mounted vertically at the intersection of stabilizers and bamboo connected to the wheel pilot holes through their centers, which facilitates yaw control.

The aircraft was based on the tires, without springs, such as bicycle wheels.

All these design features are incorporated in the late Curtiss Model D, the latter configuration, echoing the methodology used by the Wright brothers, was the result of a systematic approach to overcome obstacles aerodynamic design solutions.

The plane, with a total length of 26 feet, features or open an attachment to the fuselage, but a collection of geometric fir, ash and bamboo serving box joint flight, control and connection point train shooting, and consists of a trapezoid to support the lift forward, a triangle below the pilot’s seat, control column, and the front wheel, dual blades, horizontal elevator, below which are the main wheels and a rear tail cone triangle formed extending from the vertical and horizontal stabilizer. The engine, mounted between the two wings, is sandwiched between these geometries forward and rearward extension. In some ways resembles a comet, which was the dawn, heavier than air aircraft is flying only predecessor, is an excellent example of form following function.

Two interplane ailerons, trace their origins to those developed by Curtiss, in his speech Air Experiment Association, was first mounted on the front wings deformed in the front struts, but the gap between the surface layer of the air was necessary for its transfer to the rear, behind the wings. Unlike the method of the wing-strain, which led to the torsion of the whole wing, wings “, which are translated” wings “of the French, and first appears as the formation of the third wing a triplane depend up or down, creating more lift on one side and the induction of a bank in the opposite direction. Four mobile, triangular surfaces, mounted on the wingtips of aircraft Curtiss White Wing, designed by the AEA, had been a previous attempt to ensure lateral control.

The “cabin”, which consists of little more than a wooden seat set, a column wheel control and the food was based pedals on the bike and the new car’s driver, according to the ideology Curtiss, would the transition more likely. Engineering controls should be a natural link with the ends, imitating the dexterity of the human form. Its controls are key to the extension of the other, resulting in a man-machine interface, and model D only introduced three pedals like a car.

The first, located on the left, has launched a spring “drive” under the paste of the cell, such as brakes, dirt and grass, while the second, in the center, the nose wheel brake who had participated simple arrangement of the release of a block of friction provided that the actual wheel depression, decreased its rotation. But the third of three, right there, rather than one of them, echoing the operation of automobile instead of the traditional engine throttle and fully reproduce the accelerator pedal the basis of the earth.

Unlike the wheel of a car, which turns the wheels, or the yoke of an aircraft, which differentially deflected the ailerons, control of the circular of Curtiss Model S OF operated bar air bank, a movement traditionally controlled by the pedals, while the column is mounted the wheel actuates the lift forward, single step, or the longitudinal control, by means of a connection push rod reducing bamboo.

The triangular surfaces extending above and below the yaw axis augment stability horizontal lift.

Updating the spoilers, what method was introduced by the June Bug, is another example of technology transfer motorcycle, connecting the driver’s seat shoulder yoke, like something you “wear”, turn on both sides deflecting fins differential surfaces thereof, mounted on supports located beyond the edges and between the end of the main wings. The driver only has to look towards the wing increased to bring the aircraft to its neutral position.

A radiator between the pilot of the eight-cylinder 80 hp, V-set, A-3-Scott engine room built in 1911 and a sport that look back, wooden two-bladed propeller, which extends above and below the two trailing edges, which earned the designation of the aircraft “Pusher”. A long, cylindrical, almost like tank fuel torpedo is installed under the upper wing.

The aircraft, although primitive in appearance, is actually advanced in the operation, incorporating various innovations Curtiss-designed, including control of the shoulders the yoke of the wing, the same aileron, foot controls, and tricycle train.

Instrumental in the development of naval aviation, the Curtiss Model D, piloted by Eugene Ely was the first aircraft to operate from an aircraft carrier takeoff from the USS Birmingham 18 January 1911 and landing on USS Pennsylvania ten months later, on October 11, which requires the installation of an arrester hook to do it. Pontoon-equipped, also has conducted operations of the water. A military version of two people, the Model D Type IV, was acquired by the U.S. Army Signal Corps, April 27 this year, and had been designated “Signal Corps Airplane No. 2.” “Signal Corps airplane No. 1 “was a design of the Wright brothers.

The only model Curitss D’s of the flight control configuration and deployment of Virginia require some degree of familiarity of the pilot.

Starting the engine, like all designs in the front, is two people, which requires the driver sitting on the movement of the lever ignition timing “delay” position and the footrest slightly pedal accelerator, while the earth operator standing, sandwiched between the beams aft tail converts the helix extending from the eight-cylinder engine. After he became the lever turned and rotated in the air and the sound of life flowing.

Field staff, most inherent capabilities of the aircraft, guided provide guidance on the ground, as it lacks the nose wheel, despite its new configuration of tricycle landing gear, rudder and is not effective at low speeds, the first.

Complete starter, with the aircraft into the wind, ensures adequate ground clearance making dirty.

With biplane points out in the desired direction, and the water temperature and oil within safe limits, the pilot said the ground staff to release their control and the accelerator pedal is pushed up in which the Once the fuel is fed into the room, Scott, and the complete engine, 80-hp output is verified by the rotation of the propeller.

To the deformation of the elevator, so far, the relief of the nose wheel of the excessive pressure of the soil is progressively reduced until the air routed through and down in the two wings tissue bank, covered with enough speed, high pressure reduces the surface and respond by taking the path of least resistance – up and take the geometric structure, beam formed which are associated with them.

He goes to the atmosphere, which requires three axes of control, the D negotiates with the wind deflector shoulders, wings, the bound column with elevator canard, rudder and activate the wheel. The first is directly connected to the driver’s shoulders, a maneuver is interactive, which makes the aircraft much an extension of him, as if it were a larger antenna “body.”

Because of its heavy tail stability, we require a certain amount of deflection elevator down to maintain straight and level flight, and wooden beam, the geometry of flat plate results from slip easily removed without corrective towers and coordinated aileron and rudder.

The aircraft braking, leading rapidly to stalls, and shock-absorption process of default, requires power-soft landings.

The initial acquisition of a Curtiss Model D Collection Old Rhinebeck Aerodrome took place in the mid-1950s, when Cole Palen had tried to buy one in a museum in Connecticut, but was sold to another person intermittently. Never discouraged or intimidated by the barriers he had built one himself. Subsequently, the preparation of a group of Air air show, and performing every night and high speed taxi tests, however, had withdrawn from the elevator hoax to divert the column and biplane had turned to a promotion almost vertically, stops and crashing back into the ground with minimal injuries.

He later built two other plays, including one completed in 1976 and driven by the motor home 1911 Scott Hall derivative of the Smithsonian Institution, had been destined for the Sabbath “aviation history” shows and steals always in the air right now. It has been shown in Hammondsport, New York, shortly after it was completed after its original designer.

Like all pioneers of the Old Rhinebeck plane is limited to a small jump on the rolling grass field.

Underwent major reconstruction in the spring of 2002, the aircraft received a remanufacturing center section upper flange, a new propeller, and a review of your engine A-3, which had led to the dismantling of its case, magnetos, carburetor , and the cylinder heads, leading to heaven on August 10 that make up the deals of the air and making his first in its 27 year history of Avalon Airport in Geelong in Australia during the International Airshow 2003.

Despite its primitive and frail, wooden beams, crosses, and the metal structure geometrically collected in a biplane, the D model, which incorporates many important, early 20th century, innovations and progress was the product of Glenn Hammond Curtiss systematic solution to the aerodynamics and air leakage. Its commands are an extension of the pilot flying. Structure, which are attached, is an extension of the man who designed it.

Graduated from Long Island University-C.W. Post Campus with a degree summa cum laude, BA in comparative languages ??and journalism, which subsequently won the Community Education continues Certificate of Education of the Association of Nassau Community Continuing Education (NACCE) at Molloy College, Career Travel Certified Development Institute of Certified Travel Agents (ICTA) of Liu and the AAS degree in aerospace engineering from the University of New York – College of Technology at Farmingdale. Having accumulated nearly three decades in the airline industry, I managed the New York-JFK and Washington Dulles-stations in Austrian Airlines, created the North American Program Training Station, he served as advisor Aviation Farmingdale State University of New York, and has designed and taught airline certification program management at the Center for Equal Education on Long Island. A freelance writer, I wrote about 70 books of history, novels, fiction, essays, poetry, articles, files, programs, training manuals and the kind of textbooks in English, German and Spanish have focused on the aviation and travel, and have been published in books, magazines, newsletters, and electronically on the site. I am a former writer for Cole Palen Rhinebeck Aerodrome in New York. I made about 350 trips to life by air, sea, rail or road.

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